Laws and Rules Governing Organ Transplantation in India

The primary legislation related to organ donation and transplantation in India, Transplantation of Human Organs Act, was passed in 1994 and is aimed at regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for prevention of commercial dealings in human organs.

In India, matters related to health are governed by each state. The Act was initiated at the request of Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh and Goa (who therefore adopted it by default) and was subsequently adopted by all states except Andhra Pradesh and Jammu &Kashmir. Despite a regulatory framework, cases of commercial dealings in human organs were reported in the media. An amendment to the act was proposed by the states of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal in 2009 to address inadequacies in the efficacy, relevance and impact of the Act. The amendment to the Act was passed by the parliament in 2011, and the rules were notified in 2014. The same is adopted by the proposing states and union territories by default and may be adopted by other states by passing a resolution.